F-StopsF-stops are bandied about all the time by the pros as an important factor in macro photography, but what are they, exactly? F-stops are a measurement of the proportion between the focal length of a lens and its aperture’s diameter. Sound confusing? Absolutely. The focal length of a lens is, very simply, the distance between the lens and film (for a film camera) or digital sensor (for a digital camera) if the subject (at infinity) is in focus. Focal length is increased when you zoom your camera in to try and get a closer, focused picture, which is why you’ll see your lens move outwards when you hit zoom. The aperture of a lens is the opening through which light travels and hits your lens. Think of a camera aperture in the same way your own iris works – if your pupils are dilated and your iris is very thin, you’re probably somewhere dark and your eyes are trying to let in as much light as possible. If your pupils are small and your iris thicker, you’re probably in the sun or some kind of bright light, so your eye is trying not to let in a damaging amount of light. F-stops measure the relationship between focal length and aperture diameter, and with the way they operate, the larger the f-stop number, the smaller the aperture and the less light coming through it. A picture taken at an f-stop of f/2 on a camera with a 50mm lens, for example, will be letting in a lot more light due to its wider aperture than a picture taken using the same camera/lens with an f-stop of f/16. Now what does this have to do with macro photography? Conventional wisdom recommends using an f-stop no wider (higher, numerically) than f/16 when it comes to macro photography. Finding a good balance between the focal length of your lens and the amount of light you’re letting in is very important in macro, and for most modern lenses, you’ll likely have the best luck in terms of sharpness of the image with an f-stop somewhere between f/5.6-f/8. It might take some experimentation, but understanding what’s going on when you adjust and monitor your f-stops is a great way to start improving your macro.
Manual Focus vs Automatic FocusAuto focus when it comes to macro photography, while convenient, is fickle and often doesn’t give as good a result. Many point-and-shoots have a “Macro” feature that attempts to do all the focusing for you, but it often removes your ability to control and tweak the aperture and shutter speed settings. Manual focusing provides more consistency with macro photos, and gives you complete freedom over every other important setting. If you’ve got some extra cash floating around, you might even think about investing in a good macro lens if your camera allows for switching lenses, as that would give you even more control over your manual focus.
Experiment with LightingMost of the time, a camera’s stock flash is by far the worst way to try and light a subject for a macro photography picture. Ring flashes are, by and large, a much better option than a regular flash because it provides even illumination with very little shadowing, and they’re quite affordable if you know what to look for! I’ve seen ring flashes go for anywhere from $25 to hundreds of dollars, so you’ll need to read reviews and do a little research before you buy. If a ring flash is out of your budget, you can try and work with your regular flash by putting some scotch tape or tissue paper over it to diffuse the light and make it more even! Another lighting tip for macro is to experiment with mixing front lighting and side lighting. Good, strong front lighting will provide better color saturation, while side lighting will help highlight the texture of your piece, so finding a balance between the two would be a good move.
Always Always Always Use a TripodProduct Photography post, but I can’t overemphasize the importance of mounting your camera on something steady while you shoot macro. Camera shake has ruined many a potentially amazing macro shot, and fuzzy pictures make it tough for you to show off your product’s details! Hope you guys enjoyed these macro photography tips and tricks, and let us know if you have any questions in the comments!